Show/Hide INDEX (A-Z)
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Glossary

A

abaxial

Surface most distant or away from the axis, the lower or outer surface of organ; synomyn of dorsal.

accrescent

Increasing in size with age, as the calyx of some plants after flowering.

achene

A small, dry, generally one-seeded, indehiscent fruit, strictly of one carpel.

acicular

Needle-shaped.

actinomorphic

Divisible through the centre of the flower in two to many longitudinal planes, the halves of the flower being mirror images in every case.

acuminate

Narrowing gradually to a point.

acute

Apical margins approximately straight, the intersection angle 45° – 90°.

adaxial

The side of an organ towards the axis, ventral.

adventitious

Structures or organs developing in an unusual position, as roots originating on the stem.

alternate

Borne singly at each node, as leaves on a stem.

anthesis

Time of flowering; the opening of flower with parts available for pollination.

antispasmodic

Relieving or preventing spasms, especially of smooth muscle.

apetalous

Without petals.

apocarpous

Having free carpels.

apophysis

That portion of a cone scale which is exposed when the cone is closed; a projection or protuberance.

appressed

Pressed close or flat against another organ.

aril

A fleshy outgrowth of the funiculus, raphe, or integuments (but separate from the integuments), generally functioning in animal seed dispersal.
B

berry

A fleshy fruit with a succulent pericarp.

beetle

Any of numerous insects of the order Coleoptera, having biting mouthparts and forewings modified to form horny coverings that protect the underlying pair of membranous hind wings when at rest.

bipinnnate

Twice pinnate; with the divisions again pinnately divided.

blade

The expanded part of a leaf.

bract

A modified, generally reduced leaf, generally found associated with reproductive organs, e.g. subtending the ovuliferous scale of conifers or the flowers or inflorescence axes of flowering plants.
C

canker

A sunken, necrotic lesion of main root, stem or branch arising from disintegration of tissues outside the xylem cylinder, but sometimes limited in extent by host reactions which can result in more or less massive overgrowth of surrounding tissues.

capsule

A dry, dehiscent fruit formed from a syncarpous ovary.

carcerule

A dry indehiscent fruit with many seeds and derived from a syncarpous gynoecium.

cardiotonic

Tending to increase the tonus of heart muscle.

carpel

The unit of the gynoecium of angiosperms; ancestrally, a modified, conduplicate female (mega-) sporophyll of a flower, at maturity enclosing one or more ovules.

catkin

An inflorescence consisting of a dense spike or raceme of apetalous, unisexual flowers; synomyn of ament.

cauline

Of, on, or pertaining to the stem, as leaves arising from the stem above ground level.

claw

The narrowed base of some petals.

compound

With two or more like parts in one organ.

cone

The reproductive structure in gymnosperms. In conifers, this consists of an ovoid, cylindrical, or spherical cluster of sporophylls (cone scales) arranged round a central axis.

cordate

Shaped like an upside-down Valentine heart; approximately ovate with a cordate base.

corymb

A racemose inflorescence with pedicels of different lengths, causing the flower cluster to be flat-topped.

corymbiform

In the form of a corymb.

crenate

With rounded teeth along the margin.

cucullate

Hooded or hood-shaped.

cuneate

Wedge-shaped, triangular and tapering to a point at the base.

cyanogenic

Capable of producing cyanide.
D

decurrent

Extending downward from the point of insertion, as a leaf base that extends down along the stem.

decussate

Opposite leaves or other structures at right angles to the preceding pair.

diadelphous

Stamens united into two often unequal sets by their filaments.

didynamous

Having one pair of stamens longer than the other pairs.

dioecious

Having male and female flowers on different plants of the same species.

distichous

Alternate, with points of attachment in two vertical rows/ranks.

double

A flower having petals or petal-like structures (petaloids) additional to those in the typical form.

drupe

A fleshy, indehiscent fruit with a stony endocarp surrounding a usually single seed.
E

echinulate

Bearing small spines or bristles.

emarginate

Distinctly notched at the apex.

epigynous

With sepals, petals, and stamens attached at the apex of the ovary, the ovary inferior.

evergreen

Having green leaves through the winter; not deciduous.

exserted

Protruding beyond the surrounding parts.
F

fastigiate

With the branches more or less erect and appressed.

follicle

A dry, dehiscent fruit derived from one carpel that splits along one suture.

fruitlet

One of the individual parts that compose an aggregate fruit.

funiculus

The stalk connecting an ovule to its placenta.
G

gall

abnormal growth of plant tissue in response to an attack by insects, fungi, bacteria, etc., the characteristics form of the gall often revealing the cause of abnormality.

gamopetalous

Having petals that are united at least at the base; synomyn of sympetalous.

gamosepalous

Having sepals that are united at least at the base; synomyn of symsepalous.

geminate

Arranged in pairs.

glabrous

Without hairs.

glaucous

Covered with a whitish or bluish waxy coating.

graft

Join of two separate plants so that they function as one, strong, healthy plant that has only the best characteristics of its two parents.

gynobasic

With style arising at the base and center of a lobed ovary.

gynoecium

The female organ(s) of a flower, collectively all carpels of a flower.
H

hardwood cutting

Long length cuttings of fully mature, young stems taken after leaf fall and before new growth starts in spring from deciduous woody plants or broadleaved evergreens.

head

A crowded group of sessile or subsessile flowers on a compound receptacle, often subtended by an involucre; synomyn of capitulum.

heteropterous insect

Any insects of the suborder Heteroptera (order Hemiptera), which includes the true bugs, characterized by forewings and hind wings that differ from one another.

hymenopterous insect

Any insects of the order Hymenoptera, including the bees, wasps, and ants, often living in complex social groups and characteristically having two pairs of membranous wings.

hypanthium

A cup-shaped or tubular enlargement of the receptacle or of the bases of the floral parts.

hypogynous

With the sepals, petals and stamens attached to the receptacle or axis below the ovary.
I

imparipinnate

A pinnately compound leaf with a terminal leaflet, typically odd-pinnate.

induplicate

Folded inwards or upwards.

involucre

A group or cluster of bracts subtending an inflorescence.

intricate

Having many complexly interrelated branches or leaves.
L

laciniate

Cut into narrow, ribbonlike segments.

lanceolate

Lance-shaped; much longer than wide, with the widest point below the middle.

leaflet

A leaf-like segment of a compund leaf.

leathery

Like leather in appearance or texture; tough and flexible.

legume

A dry, dehiscent fruit derived from one carpel that splits along two sutures.

lenticel

A pore in the bark, generally functioning in gas exchange.

lepidopterous insect

Any insects belonging to the large order Lepidoptera, which includes the butterflies and moths, characterized by four membranous wings covered with small scales.

ligulate

Tongue-shaped.

linear

Long and narrow with parallel sides.
M

microsporophyll

A modified leaf which bears one or more microsporangia; a stamen.

monilliform

Like a string of beads.

monoecious

Having unisexual flowers, both staminate and pistillate on the same individual plant.

mucronate

Ending abruptly in a short, straight point.

mucronulate

Ending abruptly in a very short, straight point.
N

naturalized

Thoroughly established after introduction from another region.

nectary

A gland or surface from which nectar is secreted.

nut

A hard, dry, indehiscent fruit, usually with a single seed.

nutlet

A small nut; one of the lobes or sections of the mature ovary of some members of the Boraginaceae, Vebernaceae, and Lamiaceae.
O

oblanceolate

Inversely lanceolate, broadest towards the apex and tapering to the stalk.

obovate

Inversely ovate, broadest towards the apex and tapering to the stalk.

opposite

With two leaves at a node, one on each side of the stem or axis.

orbicular

Circular.

ovary

The expanded basal portion of the pistil that contains the ovules.

ovate

Egg-shaped in outline and attached at the broad end (applied to plane surfaces).
P

palmate

Divided to the base into separate leaflets, all the leaflets arising from the end of the leaf stalk.

panicle

An indeterminate inflorescence, consisting of several branched axes bearing pedicellate flowers.

papilionaceous

A flower with one large posterior petal (banner or standard), two inner, lateral petals (wings), and two usually apically connate lower petals (keel); floral structure of the Faboideae-Fabaceae.

pedicel

The stalk of a single flower in an inflorescence, or of a grass spikelet.

pericarp

The fruit wall that has developed from the ovary walls.

perigon

Floral envelope outside the stamens when not differentiated into calyx and corolla.

perigynous

With the sepals, petals and stamens inserted around the ovary on the hypanthium.

petiole

A leaf stalk.

petiolulate

With a petiolule (the stalk of a leaflet of a compund leaf).

pycnidium (pycnidia)

A conidioma which is globose to lageniform, ostiolate, brown, a wall of 2-3 cells thick, but can be thicker, inner surface is lined with conidiogenous cells.

pinnate

A compound leaf with leaflets arranged oppositely or alternately along a central axis, the rachis.

pistil

That part of the gynoecium composed of an ovary, one or more styles (which may be absent), and one or more stigmas.

pith

The central column of spongy, parenchymatous tissue in the stems of dicotyledons and certain monocotyledons.

polypetalous

With a corolla of separate petals; synomyn of apopetalous, dyalipetalous.

polysepalous

With a calyx of separate sepals; synonym of aposepalous, dyalisepalous.

pome

A fleshy fruit with a cartilaginous endocarp derived from an inferior ovary, with the bulk of the fleshy tissue derived from the outer, adnate hypanthial tissue.

prickle

A nonspine, nonthorn, sharp-pointed outgrowth from the surface of any organ. (plant, twig part)

proteranthous

With the flowers developing before the leaves.

pruinose

With a waxy, powdery, usually whitish coating (bloom) on the surface; conspicuously glaucous, like a prune.

pubescent

(a) With straight, short, soft, somewhat scattered, slender trichomes. (b) A general term, meaning having trichomes.
R

rachis

(a) The main axis of a pinnately compound leaf. (b) A major, central axis within an inflorescence.

receptacle

The end of the stem which bears the flower parts.

reflexed

Bent abruptly backwards.

reniform

Kidney-shaped.

revolute

Rolled downwards at the margin, i.e. towards the abaxial surface.
S

samara

A dry, indehiscent, winged fruit.

sarcotesta

A fleshy seed coat.

self-incompatible

Unable to produce fruit when self-pollinated, although possibly effective in the pollination of another genotype.

semi-ripe cutting

Cutting taken from the stems one new growth has slowed and the shoots have started to become firm, which may be from midsummer to autumn.

serrate

With a saw-toothed margin.

sessile

(a) Without a petiole or, for leaflets, without a petiolule. (b) Lacking a pedicel. (c) With filament absent, the anther attached directly.

simple

Undivided, as a leaf blade which is not separated into leaflets (though the blade may be deeply lobed or cleft).

softwood cutting

Cutting taken from new shoot tips (stem-tip cuttings) or basal shoots (basal stem cuttings) most often in spring, when they are almost fully developed but still soft.

spike

An indeterminate inflorescence consisting of a single axis bearing sessile flowers.

sprout

A bud or newly grown shoot.

staminode

A modified stamen which is sterile, producing no pollen.

stipe

A stalk supporting a structure, as the stalk attaching the ovary to the receptacle in some flowers.

stipitate

Borne on a stipe or stalk.

stipulate

Having stipules.

stipule

One of a pair of leaf-like structures, which may be modified as spines or glands, at either side of the base of a petiole.

style

The usually narrowed portion of the pistil connecting the stigma to the ovary.

subulate

Awl-shaped, tapering from the base to the apex.

syncarpous

With carpels (at least at the base) connate, the pistil or ovary being compound.
T

tepal

A component of the perianth in which the parts intergrade or in which the perianth is undifferentiated into distinctive sepals and petals.

terete

Round in cross section; cylindrical.

thorn

A stiff, woody, modified stem with a sharp point; sometimes applied to any structure resembling a true thorn.

thysanopterous insect

Any insects of the order Thysanoptera.

trichome

Any hair-like growth, glandular or eglandular, from the epidermis.

truncate

With the apex or base squared at the end as if cut off.

turbinate

Top-shaped, inversely conical.
U

umbel

A flat-topped or convex inflorescence with the pedicels arising more or less from a common point, like the struts of an umbrella.

unarmed

Without spines, prickles or thorns.

unisexual

Flowers having only carpel(s) or only stamen(s); synonym of imperfect.

urceolate

Urn-shaped, pitcher-shaped.
V

valve

One of the segments of a dehiscent fruit, separating from other such segments at maturity.

verticillaster

A deceptive kind of inflorescence found in the Labiatae, which gives the appearance of a whorl but which in reality consists of two dichasial cymes on opposite sides of the stem.
W

whorled

With parts arranged in whorls, as in a leaf arrangement with three or more leaves arising from a node.
Z

zygomorphic

With one plane of symmetry.
Abbreviations

C

center

cv.

cultivar

diam.

diameter

E

east

f.

form

Gr.

greek

Ital.

italian

N

north

S

south

W

west

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