Surface most distant or away from the axis, the lower or outer surface of organ; synomyn of dorsal.
Increasing in size with age, as the calyx of some plants after flowering.
A small, dry, generally one-seeded, indehiscent fruit, strictly of one carpel.
Divisible through the centre of the flower in two to many longitudinal planes, the halves of the flower being mirror images in every case.
Narrowing gradually to a point.
Apical margins approximately straight, the intersection angle 45° – 90°.
The side of an organ towards the axis, ventral.
Structures or organs developing in an unusual position, as roots originating on the stem.
Borne singly at each node, as leaves on a stem.
Time of flowering; the opening of flower with parts available for pollination.
Relieving or preventing spasms, especially of smooth muscle.
Having free carpels.
That portion of a cone scale which is exposed when the cone is closed; a projection or protuberance.
Pressed close or flat against another organ.
A fleshy outgrowth of the funiculus, raphe, or integuments (but separate from the integuments), generally functioning in animal seed dispersal.
A fleshy fruit with a succulent pericarp.
Any of numerous insects of the order Coleoptera, having biting mouthparts and forewings modified to form horny coverings that protect the underlying pair of membranous hind wings when at rest.
Twice pinnate; with the divisions again pinnately divided.
The expanded part of a leaf.
A modified, generally reduced leaf, generally found associated with reproductive organs, e.g. subtending the ovuliferous scale of conifers or the flowers or inflorescence axes of flowering plants.
A sunken, necrotic lesion of main root, stem or branch arising from disintegration of tissues outside the xylem cylinder, but sometimes limited in extent by host reactions which can result in more or less massive overgrowth of surrounding tissues.
A dry, dehiscent fruit formed from a syncarpous ovary.
A dry indehiscent fruit with many seeds and derived from a syncarpous gynoecium.
Tending to increase the tonus of heart muscle.
The unit of the gynoecium of angiosperms; ancestrally, a modified, conduplicate female (mega-) sporophyll of a flower, at maturity enclosing one or more ovules.
An inflorescence consisting of a dense spike or raceme of apetalous, unisexual flowers; synomyn of ament.
Of, on, or pertaining to the stem, as leaves arising from the stem above ground level.
The narrowed base of some petals.
With two or more like parts in one organ.
The reproductive structure in gymnosperms. In conifers, this consists of an ovoid, cylindrical, or spherical cluster of sporophylls (cone scales) arranged round a central axis.
Shaped like an upside-down Valentine heart; approximately ovate with a cordate base.
A racemose inflorescence with pedicels of different lengths, causing the flower cluster to be flat-topped.
In the form of a corymb.
With rounded teeth along the margin.
Hooded or hood-shaped.
Wedge-shaped, triangular and tapering to a point at the base.
Capable of producing cyanide.
Extending downward from the point of insertion, as a leaf base that extends down along the stem.
Opposite leaves or other structures at right angles to the preceding pair.
Stamens united into two often unequal sets by their filaments.
Having one pair of stamens longer than the other pairs.
Having male and female flowers on different plants of the same species.
Alternate, with points of attachment in two vertical rows/ranks.
A flower having petals or petal-like structures (petaloids) additional to those in the typical form.
A fleshy, indehiscent fruit with a stony endocarp surrounding a usually single seed.
Bearing small spines or bristles.
Distinctly notched at the apex.
With sepals, petals, and stamens attached at the apex of the ovary, the ovary inferior.
Having green leaves through the winter; not deciduous.
Protruding beyond the surrounding parts.
With the branches more or less erect and appressed.
A dry, dehiscent fruit derived from one carpel that splits along one suture.
One of the individual parts that compose an aggregate fruit.
The stalk connecting an ovule to its placenta.
abnormal growth of plant tissue in response to an attack by insects, fungi, bacteria, etc., the characteristic form of the gall often revealing the cause of abnormality.
Having petals that are united at least at the base; synomyn of sympetalous.
Having sepals that are united at least at the base; synomyn of symsepalous.
Arranged in pairs.
Covered with a whitish or bluish waxy coating.
Join of two separate plants so that they function as one, strong, healthy plant that has only the best characteristics of its two parents.
With the style arising at the base and center of a lobed ovary.
The female organ(s) of a flower, collectively all the carpels of a flower.
Long length cuttings of fully mature, young stems taken after leaf fall and before new growth starts in spring from deciduous woody plants or broadleaved evergreens.
A crowded group of sessile or subsessile flowers on a compound receptacle, often subtended by an involucre; synomyn of capitulum.
Any insects of the suborder Heteroptera (order Hemiptera), which includes true bugs, characterized by forewings and hind wings that differ from one another.
Any insects of the order Hymenoptera, including bees, wasps, and ants, often living in complex social groups and characteristically having two pairs of membranous wings.
A cup-shaped or tubular enlargement of the receptacle or of the bases of the floral parts.
With the sepals, petals and stamens attached to the receptacle or axis below the ovary.
A pinnately compound leaf with a terminal leaflet, typically odd-pinnate.
Folded inwards or upwards.
A group or cluster of bracts subtending an inflorescence.
Having many complexly interrelated branches or leaves.
Cut into narrow, ribbon-like segments.
Lance-shaped; much longer than wide, with the widest point below the middle.
A leaf-like segment of a compund leaf.
Like leather in appearance or texture; tough and flexible.
A dry, dehiscent fruit derived from one carpel that splits along two sutures.
A pore in the bark, generally functioning in gas exchange.
Any insects belonging to the large order Lepidoptera, which includes butterflies and moths, characterized by four membranous wings covered with small scales.
Long and narrow with parallel sides.
A modified leaf which bears one or more microsporangia; a stamen.
Like a string of beads.
Having unisexual flowers, both staminate and pistillate on the same individual plant.
Ending abruptly in a short, straight point.
Ending abruptly in a very short, straight point.
Thoroughly established after introduction from another region.
A gland or surface from which nectar is secreted.
A hard, dry, indehiscent fruit, usually with a single seed.
A small nut; one of the lobes or sections of the mature ovary of some members of the Boraginaceae, Vebernaceae, and Lamiaceae.
Inversely lanceolate, broadest towards the apex and tapering to the stalk.
Inversely ovate, broadest towards the apex and tapering to the stalk.
With two leaves at a node, one on each side of the stem or axis.
The expanded basal portion of the pistil that contains the ovules.
Egg-shaped in outline and attached at the broad end (applied to plane surfaces).
Divided to the base into separate leaflets, all the leaflets arising from the end of the leaf stalk.
An indeterminate inflorescence, consisting of several branched axes bearing pedicellate flowers.
A flower with one large posterior petal (banner or standard), two inner, lateral petals (wings), and two usually apically connate lower petals (keel); floral structure of the Fabaceae family.
The stalk of a single flower in an inflorescence, or of a grass spikelet.
The fruit wall that has developed from the ovary walls.
Floral envelope outside the stamens when not differentiated into calyx and corolla.
With the sepals, petals and stamens inserted around the ovary on the hypanthium.
A leaf stalk.
With a petiolule (the stalk of a leaflet of a compund leaf).
A compound leaf with leaflets arranged oppositely or alternately along a central axis, the rachis.
That part of the gynoecium composed of an ovary, one or more styles (which may be absent), and one or more stigmas.
The central column of spongy, parenchymatous tissue in the stems of dicotyledons and certain monocotyledons.
With a corolla of separate petals; synomyn of apopetalous, dyalipetalous.
With a calyx of separate sepals; synonym of aposepalous, dyalisepalous.
A fleshy fruit with a cartilaginous endocarp derived from an inferior ovary, with the bulk of the fleshy tissue derived from the outer, adnate hypanthial tissue.
A non-spine, non-thorn, sharp-pointed outgrowth from the surface of any organ.
With the flowers developing before the leaves.
With a waxy, powdery, usually whitish coating (bloom) on the surface; conspicuously glaucous, like a prune.
(a) With straight, short, soft, somewhat scattered, slender trichomes. (b) A general term, meaning “having trichomes”.
A conidioma which is globose to lageniform, ostiolate, brown, a wall of 2-3 cells thick, but can be thicker, inner surface is lined with conidiogenous cells.
(a) The main axis of a pinnately compound leaf. (b) A major, central axis within an inflorescence.
The end of the stem which bears the flower parts.
Bent abruptly backwards.
Rolled downwards at the margin, i.e. towards the abaxial surface.
A dry, indehiscent, winged fruit.
A fleshy seed coat.
Unable to produce fruit when self-pollinated, although possibly effective in the pollination of another genotype.
Cutting taken from the stems one new growth has slowed and the shoots have started to become firm, which may be from midsummer to autumn.
With a saw-toothed margin.
(a) Without a petiole or, for leaflets, without a petiolule. (b) Lacking a pedicel. (c) With no filament, the anther attached directly.
Undivided, as a leaf blade which is not separated into leaflets (though the blade may be deeply lobed or cleft).
Cutting taken from new shoot tips (stem-tip cuttings) or basal shoots (basal stem cuttings) most often in spring, when they are almost fully developed but still soft.
An indeterminate inflorescence consisting of a single axis bearing sessile flowers.
A bud or newly grown shoot.
A modified stamen which is sterile, producing no pollen.
A stalk supporting a structure, as the stalk attaching the ovary to the receptacle in some flowers.
Borne on a stipe or stalk.
One of a pair of leaf-like structures, which may be modified as spines or glands, at either side of the base of a petiole.
The usually narrowed portion of the pistil connecting the stigma to the ovary.
Awl-shaped, tapering from the base to the apex.
With carpels (at least at the base) connate, the pistil or ovary being compound.
A component of the perianth in which the parts intergrade or in which the perianth is undifferentiated into distinctive sepals and petals.
Round in cross section; cylindrical.
A stiff, woody, modified stem with a sharp point; sometimes applied to any structure resembling a true thorn.
Any insects of the order Thysanoptera.
Any hair-like growth, glandular or eglandular, from the epidermis.
With the apex or base squared at the end as if cut off.
Top-shaped, inversely conical.
A flat-topped or convex inflorescence with the pedicels arising more or less from a common point, like the struts of an umbrella.
Without spines, prickles or thorns.
Flowers having only carpel(s) or only stamen(s); synonym of imperfect.
One of the segments of a dehiscent fruit, separating from other such segments at maturity.
A deceptive kind of inflorescence found in the Lamiaceae family, which gives the appearance of a whorl but which in reality consists of two dichasial cymes on opposite sides of the stem.
With parts arranged in whorls, as in a leaf arrangement with three or more leaves arising from a node.
With one plane of symmetry.